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Simultaneous Analysis of Food Dyes by HPLC-DAD [AN0065]

Food colourant additives are common dyes used to enhance the colour and palatability of food and drink products. Dyes used during food manufacturing are divided into natural and synthetic dyes. Synthetic dyes are often added to compensate for the loss of natural colour that occurs during processing and storage of food products. Additionally, synthetic dyes offer better stability, brightness and lower cost compared to natural dyes. Due to concerns about the potential health risks from the consumption of artificial food dyes, synthetic colourants are subject to regulation.
Global regulations can vary as to which dyes are allowed, specific foods they can be used in and regulatory limits. For example, the Food and Drug
Administration (US) allows the use of Sunset Yellow, Brilliant Blue, Indigo Carmine and Erythrosine[1].
SCION Instruments developed a HPLC method for the simultaneous identification of six synthetic dyes at varying wavelengths. Utilising the Diode Array Detector, it was possible to extract the optimal wavelength for each target compound.

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The Analysis of Electronic Cigarette E-Liquids by GC-MS [AN_0037]

INTRODUCTION: There are over 35 million electronic cigarette users worldwide with the global vapour product market at over £17 billion pounds[1]. Although they are widely used, there is limited characterisation of the composition of e-liquids used during vaping. As vaping becomes an increasing trend, regulations are being introduced for electronic cigarettes and e-liquid manufacturers worldwide. The Tobacco Products Directive 2014/14/EU has recently introduced a limited guideline on the manufacturing of e-liquids[2]. These guidelines are more focused on the concentration of nicotine, caffeine, taurine and colourings rather than flavourings and impurities. Although there are labelling requirements in place, there is no current regulation on a comprehensive list of ingredients; the majority of e-liquids only define propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin and nicotine as ingredients. Scion Instruments developed a method for the quick and easy compositional analysis of e-liquids by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Along with the vendor listed compounds, various flavour compounds and impurities were identified.

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The Analysis of Electronic Cigarette E-Liquids by GC-MS [AN0037]

There are over 35 million electronic cigarette users worldwide with the global vapour product market at over £17 billion pounds[1] . Although they are widely used, there is limited characterisation of the composition of e-liquids used during vaping. As vaping becomes an increasing trend, regulations are being introduced for electronic cigarettes and e-liquid manufacturers worldwide. The Tobacco Products Directive 2014/14/EU has recently introduced a limited guideline on the manufacturing of e-liquids[2] . These guidelines are more focused on the concentration of nicotine, caffeine, taurine and colourings rather than flavourings and impurities. Although there are labelling requirements in place, there is no current regulation on a comprehensive list of ingredients; the majority of e-liquids only define propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin and nicotine as ingredients.
Scion Instruments developed a method for the quick and easy compositional analysis of e-liquids by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Along with the vendor listed compounds, various flavour compounds and impurities were identified.

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The Analysis of Flavours in Beer with SCION ChomSync Software, May 2019.1 [AN024]

INTRODUCTION: One of the most widely purchased beverages in the world is beer. With the consumer market so large, breweries are developing their products to have its own distinct flavour. It is vital that breweries test and monitor the flavour compounds during the production process to ensure that the same flavours are consistently achieved. The volatile compounds that make up the flavour composition must therefore be profiled batch to batch.

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The Analysis of Residual Solvents by Headspace Sampling and GC According to USP 467: Procedure A, May 2019.1 [AN022]

INTRODUCTION: In the pharmaceutical industry, residual solvents are defined as organic volatile chemicals that are produced during the manufacturing of active pharmaceutical ingredients or derived directly from the packaging of the pharmaceuticals. Residual solvents do not provide any therapeutic benefits and should be removed where possible. Quality assurance laboratories routinely test products for the presence of residual solvents. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) method 467 is the harmonised test method for the identification and quantification of the organic volatile impurities by gas chromatography. USP 467 details three classes of solvents, in accordance to their health hazards. Additionally, the analytical method is split into two procedures; procedure A is for the identification of the residual solvents at the limit of detection whereas procedure B is for the confirmation of the analyte
identity.

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The Determination of Vehicle Emissions in Exhaust Gases and Ozone Precursors in Ambient Air with a Built-in Preconcentrator/GC System, May 2019.1 [AN005]

Internal combustion engine emissions are comprised of a long list of organic compounds from C2 to C12 hydrocarbons. Major sources of these are automobiles and trucks with lesser sources including industrial emissions and home powered tools such as lawnmowers and leaf blowers. These emissions are considered as ozone precursors in the ambient air since under atmospheric conditions in the summer months, they can interact with nitrogen oxides
in the presence of sunlight to produce ozone, a criteria air pollutant under the United States Clean Air Act (1970).

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The Mini Gas Splitter: SCION’s Special Tool to Improve Analytical Accuracy [AN0028]

The importance of sulphur removal from various energy sources can be beneficial for many reasons, such as toxicity, corrosion and environmental pollution. Before crude oils are distilled or coal is converted for the use of fuels, sulphur is first removed from the raw feed streams. H2 S is formed during these conversions and treatment steps. When natural gas is extracted from their sources, the gas is treated in gas treatment plants before being used as an energy source. The H2 S, COS and other organic sulphur in the gas are removed from the raw materials. The analysis of sulphur containing components in different industrial gases is a widely performed measurement in an industrial environment. The methods for the measurement of the sulphur containing compounds can be very broad. The analytical method used is dependant on the range and composition of the gas. Gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) is usually the method of choice especially where low and ultra low (ppb) levels are to be determined. Handling gaseous streams contaminated with low levels of sulphur special requires special attention, mainly because of the reactive nature of the components; they tend to be adsorbed onto most materials. The analytical effect is more drastic at lower concentration levels. Attention needs to be given to the transport of the gas; sampling into specially treated containers, transfer into and transport through the analytical device. This application note discusses the SCION mini gas splitter used to improve analytical accuracy.

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The Use of Alternative Carrier Gases in Gas Chromatography [AN0029]

Helium is one of the most common and lightest elements in the universe. The boiling point of helium is closer to absolute zero than any other element. When using helium consideration is rarely given to the fact that it is a non reusable element, meaning the world’s resources of helium are being depleted. Due to the limited availability and the increased sales prices of helium, alternative for helium must be implemented. The importance of carrier gas selection has been a discussion point amongst users of gas chromatography for many years. To serve as a carrier gas in gas chromatography, the gases must be available in sufficient purity and inertness. There are three gases that are commonly used as a carrier gas: nitrogen, helium and hydrogen. The efficiency comparison between these gases is given by the Van Deemter curve which relates the efficiency with carrier gas velocity through the column (speed). Figure 1 shows the Van Deemter curve for nitrogen, helium and hydrogen.
The most efficient gas is hydrogen, followed by helium and nitrogen. Even though the optimum plate height for the three gases are almost identical, helium and nitrogen are behind with respect to analysis time. When viewing the Van Deemter curve, nitrogen has a narrow optimum, with both helium and hydrogen having wider optimums, meaning they may be used at higher velocities with only little sacrifice in separation efficiency. Hydrogen is considered the optimal choice, combining high efficiency separations with short analysis times. However, hydrogen has a safety risk with a 4% concentration in air will lead to explosions.
To date, the worldwide carrier gas of choice has been the second most efficient gas; helium. However, with the rising cost and apparent shortage, the use of alternative carrier gases has increased over time.

Showing 71 - 80 of 86 results