ResourcesApplication Notes

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Comparison of BTEXS in Olive Oils by Static and Dynamic HT3 Headspace

The health benefits of consumption of olive oils as part of a healthy diet reaches back to the mid 1950’s. In the late 1990’s, interest in characterizing other components of olive oils included determining the concentration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene (BTEXS). Some of these compounds are naturally occurring, while others may be introduced through the processing of olive oil.
The method suggested for the determination of BTEXS in olive oil is static headspace. This application note will reproduce some of the static parameters


Analysis of dioxins by GC-TQMS

Dioxins and Furans are among the most toxic chemicals and are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Dioxins can invoke serious health effects in humans such as loss of body weight, hormone disruption, reproductive disorders, skin toxicity, immune system disorders and cancer, among other diseases. Since 2014, GC-MS/MS is an EU-accepted technique as confirmation method for dioxin analysis in accordance with EU 589/2014 and subsequent regulations implemented in this regard.
This Application Note shows the analytical performance of the SCION 8900 TQ GC-MS analysing dioxins in food, feed and environmental samples with confidence.


Multiplexed pesticide analysis by GC-TQMS

As plant protection products, pesticides may be used in food production (growth), storage, and transport. Traditional GC-TQMS analysis of multi-residue pesticides suffers from a lack of sensitivity when many compounds are analysed in a single run.

In this Application Note, we will explore the ultimate performance of the SCION 8900 GC-TQMS for the simultaneous analysis of 450 pesticides without loss of sensitivity or reproducibility


IP507 Determination of boiling range distribution of heavy distillate and residual fuel oils — Gas chromatography method

SCION Instruments offers a solution for a simulated distillation of heavy distillate and residual fuel oils, according to standardized method IP507. Simulated Gas chromatography distillations can be used for control of refining operations. Standardized method IP507 describes the determination of the boiling range distribution of heavy distillate and residual fuel oils, with initial boiling points (IBP) of at least 100°C and final boiling points of (FBP) above 750°C.


ASTM D7900 Standard Test Method for Determination of Light Hydrocarbons in Stabilized Crude Oils by Gas Chromatography

SCION Instruments offers the solution for detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) of stabilized crudes. A stabilized crude oil is known for having a Reid Vapor pressure equivalent or less than 82.7 kPa. Crude oils consist of hundreds of hydrocarbon compounds in which the boiling point distribution of these crude oils is an important parameter in the petroleum industry.
ASTM D7900 describes the standard test method to determine the boiling point range distribution of hydrocarbons in crude oil up to n-nonane (n-C9). It is possible to combine the results of this method with the test results of ASTM D7169 and IP 545 to give a full boiling point distribution.


ASTM D5580 Standard Test method for determination of Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p/m-xylene, o-xylene, C9 and heavier Aromatics, and total aromatics in finished Gasoline by Gas Chromatography (GC).

Aromatics and ethers are added to gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide emissions and increase octane number. However, aromatics are toxic for health and environment. Test methods to determine benzene and the aromatic content of gasoline are necessary to asses product quality and to meet new fuel regulations. ASTM D5580 describes the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, the xylenes, C9 and heavier aromatics and total aromatics in finished motor gasoline by GC.


ASTM D5769; Standard test method for determination of benzene, toluene, and total aromatics in finished gasolines by GC-MS

After the petroleum refining process, it is important to assess the gasoline quality and to see if the fuel regulations are met. The ASTM D5769 describes a method to determine Benzene, Toluene and total aromatics in finished gasolines using a gas chromatograph (GC) in combination with a Mass Spectrometer (MS).


D3524; Standard test method for diesel fuel diluent in used diesel engine oils by gas chromatography

The ASTM D3524 describes the method to determine the amount of diesel in used engine lubricating oil using a gas chromatograph (GC) in combination with a flame ionization detector (FID).

While using the engine some fuel dilution of lubricating oils takes place during normal operation, this may be the result of engine wear or improper engine performance. Fuel dilution in engine oil is caused by unburned fuel components entering the engine crankcase causing the dilution. When excessive fuel dilution occurs the lubricating oil performance will be degraded. The products viscosity will decrease, and this can cause performance problems in the engine.

This method can analyse the diesel fuel diluent up to 12 mass%


D3525; Standard test method for gasoline diluent in used gasoline engine oils by gas chromatography

The ASTM D3525 describes a method to determine the amount of gasoline in lubricating oils using a gas chromatograph (GC) in combination with a flame ionization detector (FID).

While using the engine some fuel dilution of lubricating oils takes place during normal operation, this may be the result of engine wear or improper engine performance. Fuel dilution is caused by unburned fuel components entering the engine crankcase causing the dilution of the oil. When excessive fuel dilution occurs the lubricating oil performance will be degraded. The oil products viscosity will decrease, and this causes performance problems in the engine. The oil contamination safe limits are usually kept at 4 to 5 %.


Low level CO, CO2, CH4 and C2+ in hydrogen using FID

Hydrogen is becoming more of a go to green solution for different applications, it can be produced by generators using renewable energy. Hydrogen supply infrastructures require specifications and operation protocols to maintain and monitor the quality of the hydrogen used.

This analyser is based on international standards NEN-ISO 21087 and ISO 14687 and is specially made for CO, CO2, CH4 and C2+ in hydrogen. This special analyser combines a super inert injector, multi column system, methanizer and FID with narrow bore ceramic jet so even 10 ppb of these components can be detected.