Showing 1 - 10 of 20 results

731 KB

A True Six-Channel Solution for Impurities in Ethylene, May 2019.1 [AN013]

INTRODUCTION: Ethylene is one of the highest volume chemicals produced in the world, with over 100 million metric tons produced annually. Ethylene is primarily used in the manufacture of polyethylene, ethylene oxide and ethylene dichloride. Impurities in ethylene can damage catalysts, resulting in
significant replacement costs, reduced product quality, process downtime and decreased yield. Ethylene is manufactured through the use of steam
cracking, in which gaseous or light liquid hydrocarbons are heated to 750-790°C in a pyrolysis furnace. Larger hydrocarbons are cracked into smaller hydrocarbons with the formation of unsaturated and olefinic compounds being produced. Ethylene feedstocks must be tested to ensure that only high purity ethylene is delivered for chemical processing.

414 KB

Analysis of Free and Total Glycerin in B-100 Biodiesel Methyl Esters (ASTM D6584)

Introduction. The American Standard, ASTM D 6584, is the standard test method commonly used for the quantitative determination of free and total glycerin content in Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), typically intended for pure biodiesel or as a blending component for domestic and diesel fuels. Total glycerol content is calculated from the results obtained. The method is suitable for FAME from rapeseed, sunflower and soybean oils*. A metal capillary GC column was specifically used for this high temperature method.

325 KB

Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons using Temperature Programmed Large Volume Injection, May 2019.1 [AN010]

INTRODUCTION: Mineral oils are typically found in water, foods and soils. These mineral oils can be extracted using different solvent; most popular are hexane and petroleum ether. As concentrations can be very low, some sort of sample enrichment is often used, e.g. rotary evaporation. If, however, a Large Volume Injection (LVI) technique is used, sample pretreatment becomes easier and sample throughput can be increased significantly. This application note describes the analysis of mineral oils (or Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons / TPH) using the Scion 456-GC gas chromatograph equipped with a Programmable Temperature Vaporizer (PTV) Injector and the Select™ Mineral Oil column. The column stationary phase was tuned for separation and stabilised for high
temperature operation. The upper temperature limit of the column is 400 °C. This system is suited to the DIN-ENISO 9377-2 method that replaced DIN H53.

423 KB

Determination of Free and Total Glycerine and mono-, di-, triglyceride content in B-100 Biodiesel Methyl Esters according to EN 14105

INTRODUCTION The European Standard method, EN-14105, is used to determine the free glycerol and residual mono-,di- and triglyceride contents in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) typically intended for addition to mineral oils. Total glycerol content is calculated from the results obtained. The method is suitable for FAME from rapeseed, sunflower and soybean oils, but is not suitable for FAME produced from or containing coconut and palm kernel oils due of the problem of peak overlapping. This method and ASTM D6584 are two of the most used standardized analytical methods used for the analysis of biodiesel.

303 KB

Determination of Free Glycerol Content in Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and Biodiesel According to EN-14106

Introduction. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of the parent oil or fat with an alcohol, usually methanol, in the presence of a catalyst, usually potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide, or, increasingly, alkoxides. The resulting product can contain not only the desired alkyl ester product but also unreacted starting material mono-, di- and triacylglycerides, residual alcohol and catalyst. Glycerol is formed as a byproduct and separated from the biodiesel in the production process. However, traces of glycerol can be found in the final biodiesel product. In higher concentrations, glycerol has a negative effect on fuel behavior and performance. For biodiesel to be used as a motor fuel or blended with petroleum diesel, it must conform to standard specifications (ASTM D6751 or EN-14214). There are GC methods in use today to determine whether biodiesel conforms to the standard specifications. One of these methods, EN-14106, is used to determine the glycerol content. This European Standard specifies a gas chromatographic method for the determination of free glycerol content in Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) in the range of 0.005% to 0.070 %.

305 KB

Determination of Methanol Content in Biodiesel (EN 14110)

Introduction. The purpose of the European Standard EN14110 is to determine the methanol content of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) intended for use as pure biodiesel or as a blending component for domestic heating fuels and diesel fuels. The method is applicable for a concentration range from 0.01 % (m/m) to 0.5 % (m/m) methanol. Requirements stated in EN-14214:2003 are <0.2% (m/m) methanol (MeOH). The EN-14110 method is not applicable to mixtures of FAME that contain other low boiling components. For this application note the analysis was conducted using the internal standard method which was appropriate for manual headspace analysis. The analysis can be automated using a headspace sampler.

Showing 1 - 10 of 20 results