Showing 1 - 10 of 18 results

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Analysis of Boiling Point Distributions in Petroleum Fractions using Simulated Distribution (ASTM D2887A), May 2019.1 [AN008]

Introduction: In many regions ASTM D2887 may be used for determining the boiling point distribution of petroleum products, feedstocks and fractions that have a final boiling point of 538°C or lower. This provides insight into composition and determining intrinsic product value. Even though Physical Distillation is still considered the reference method for distillation, and therefore mandatory in many countries for qualifying fuels, Simulated Distillation (SIMDIST) by gas chromatography offers some significant advantages over the physical procedure, making this technique valuable.

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Analysis of Low Level Oxygenates (LOWOX) in Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), May 2019.1 [AN009]

Introduction: The determination of sub to high ppm levels of ethers, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in different hydrocarbon matrices is a recurring challenge in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industry. The SCION low level oxygenates analyser is designed and optimised to quantify ppm and sub levels of ethers, alcohols, ketones and hydrocarbons in gas, liquid and LPG samples. Oxygenates can be present in hydrocarbon streams for a variety of reasons. For example, methanol is added to crude oil to reduce the formation of hydrates during transportation and storage. Clean up processes like
hydro -treating are used in an attempt to remove oxygenated compounds. Even at sub ppm trace levels, oxygenates quickly degrade or destroy expensive
catalysts in downstream polymerisation processes.

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Analysis of Sulphur Compounds in Various Liquefied Petroleum Gases, May 2019.1 [AN006]

The low-level analysis of sulphur containing components such as Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S), COS (carbonyl sulphide) and mercaptans, in liquified petroleum gas (LPG), is challenging. First of all, the system has to be inert; stainless steel adsorbs H2S and other sulphur containing components. Secondly, the column used must be able to separate the components of interest. Although a highly selective pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) is used in sulphur mode, the bulk hydrocarbons tends to quench the PFPD signal.

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Boiling Point Distribution in Petroleum Fractions using Simulated Distillation (ASTM D2887) [AN_0008]

Introduction
In many regions ASTM D2887 may be used for determining the boiling point distribution of petroleum products, feedstocks and fractions that have a final boiling point of 538°C or lower. This provides insight into composition and determining intrinsic product value.
Even though Physical Distillation is still considered the reference method for distillation, and therefore mandatory in many countries for qualifying fuels, Simulated Distillation (SIMDIST) by gas chromatography offers some significant advantages over the physical procedure, making this technique valuable.
Analysis by GC typically has the better precision, more throughput, less hands-on time and lower cost per sample. Lastly, SIMDIST requires considerable less sample and should generally be considered the safer of the two techniques.
In addition to the standard method (procedure A), a second procedure has recently been added into D2887, the accelerated or fast method (procedure B).
This application note demonstrates a solution for D2887 procedure A for analysing Petroleum products covering a boiling point range of 36°C to 545°C. This procedure is not suited for biodiesels. For gasolines, method D7096 should be used.

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Comparing ASTM D8071 (GC-VUV) & ASTM D6730 (DHA) for Hydrocarbon Analysis, May 2019.1 [AN025]

INTRODUCTION: There are many challenges within the petrochemical industry and associated GC analysis methods, for the analysis of hydrocarbons in spark ignition fuels. As regulations continuously drive down the accepted levels of impurities in gasolines, lower detection and quantification levels must be observed when using GC as a method for analysis. Fuel impurities must be removed whilst also retaining and characterising paraffins, iso-paraffins,
olefins, napthenes and aromatics (PIONA) as well as other hydrocarbon classes to maintain the octane value of the system.
ASTM D6730 is the standard test method for the determination of individual components in spark ignition fuels using GC-FID. However, this detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) is time consuming with long analyses, column tuning and extensive post processing times. DHA is reliant on reproducible retention index values; requiring optimal controlled operating, flow and temperature conditions, for identification and quantification

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Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis of Spark Ignition Engine Fuels by GC using ASTM D6729, May 2019.1 [AN003]

It is vital for quality control purposes that spark ignition engine fuels are analysed via ASTM D6729. This application note covers the determination of individual hydrocarbon component of spark ignition engine fuels, commonly known as detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA). The method is applicable to gasolines containing oxygenate blends (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and ethanol), with boiling point ranges up to 225°C and other light liquid hydrocarbon
mixtures typically encountered in petroleum refining operations such as blending stocks (naphtha’s, reformates and alkylates).

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Determination of Free Glycerol in Fatty Acid Methyl Esters and Biodiesel according to EN-14106, May 2019.1 [AN017]

INTRODUCTION: Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of the parent oil or fat with an alcohol, usually methanol, in the presence of a catalyst, usually potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide. Alkoxides are now becoming more increasingly popular. The resulting biodiesel product contains not only the desired alkyl ester product but also non or partly reacted starting material mono-, di-, and triacylglycerides, residual alcohol and catalysts. Glycerol is
formed as a by-product and separated from the biodiesel in the production process. However, traces of glycerol can be found in the final biodiesel product.

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Determination of Hydrocarbon Group Types in Spark Ignition Fuels using Gas Chromatography with Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Spectroscopy (GC-VUV), May 2019.1 [AN021]

INTRODUCTION: The VUV detector is the next generation GC detector for PIONA analysis; simplifying the complex analysis of hydrocarbon samples with short analysis times, including spark ignition fuels. There are many challenges within the petrochemical industry and associated GC analysis methods. As regulations continuously drive down the accepted levels of impurities in gasolines, lower detection and quantification levels must be observed when using GC
as a method for analysis. Fuel impurities must be removed whilst also retaining and characterising paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, napthenes and aromatics (PIONA) as well as other hydrocarbon classes to maintain the octane value of the system.

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Determination of Oxygenated Compounds in Gasoline in Compliance with ASTM D4815, May 2019.1 [AN002]

As mandated by the EPA and the California Air ResourcescBoard (CARB), petroleum refiners have to incorporate some form of oxygen containing components into the gasoline the produce. The model on which the regulations are based requires 2% by weight of oxygen in reformulated gasoline. Both refiners and regulators have had to ensure that this requirement is met by the addition of certain compounds to the gasoline blend. Most of these compounds take the form of aliphatic alcohols or ethers such as ethanol and t-butyl-methyl ether (MTBE). To quantify these oxygenated additives, CARB has designated ASTM D4815 as the test method for all reformulated gasoline sold in California.

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Determination of TBP by Ultrafast DHA Fugacity Film Modelling Software [AN0038]

Distillation data is an intrinsic part of refining processes with data embedded in product specifications and regulatory compliance. In order to maximise product value, precise distillation data is vital.
ASTM D86 (1) is the basic test method of determining the boiling point range of petroleum products and is one of the oldest methods still applicable within ASTM jurisdiction. ASTM D86 entails a rather basic controlled physical distillation, and it has some drawbacks in today use:
• It has a long cycle time, in most cases over 30 minutes, whereas many laboratories and processes require a faster delivery.
• The method requires 100ml of sample. In some cases the amount of sample available is too small to run the test. Moreover, sample size of 100ml may be regarded as environmentally unacceptable.
• A manual method requiring constant operator attention, has much lower productivity, and is less (cost) effective.
• A physical distillation of flammable samples in an open laboratory does come with an inherent safety risk that may be eliminated
Traditional DHA is way too slow as a method, and Simulated Distillation, despite being widely accepted, and sometimes even acceptable from regulatory point of view, does not provide the level of detail needed for the more volatile fractions and streams available.
This application note details a new method, based on high speed DHA style chromatography and data modelling specifically geared towards TBP data for volatile streams.
This Fugacity-Film model approach was first described some two decades ago, and it is based on Fick’s Law and Henry’s Law and has already been proven to allow for experimental prediction/modelling of TBP curves with relatively good precision.

Showing 1 - 10 of 18 results